Monday, May 18, 2015

One Album Wonders: Baader Meinhoff's Baader Meinhoff

Luke Haines has released music under several names and as a part of several bands including The AuteursThe Black ArtsBlack Box RecorderThe Deverell TwinsThe North Sea ScrollsThe Servants, and the One Album Wonder that is the subject of this piece, Baader Meinhof. Baader Meinhof were named after the West German terrorist group who actually went by the name the Rote Armee Fraktion.
Baader Meinhof album

As a child in the 1980s, I remember the Weather Underground’s heist of a Brink’s truck, the MOVEfirebombing, and stories about Carlos “The Jackal.” The first (and second to last) car that I owned was a still-boxy black BMW adorned with a bumper sticker informing anyone stuck behind me in gridlock “Ich gehöre nicht zur Baader-Meinhof Gruppe.” I only know about ten words of German but own an un-subtitled copy of the documentary Starbuck Holger Meins (I get the gist). My interest in Leftist urban terrorism is such that even if a completely generic whoa-oh band were to title a song "Deutscher Herbst," I'd probably listen to it less critically than I would were it instead titled something like "England Skies."
Felt's "Space Blues"

How much better, then, that Baader Meinhof seemed to find inspiration in a weird and wonderful non-albumFelt song, “Space Blues.” That song should've been the (space) blueprint for a new pop subgenre. After it's release, however, Martin Duffy and Rose McDowall (Strawberry Switchblade) left the Felt fold to form Church of Raism (as in Gilles de Rais) with Robert Young (Primal Scream) and James Havoc.Their sole album hadn't married Fender Rhodes and viola to softly sung lyrics, however, instead opting to trade in good ol’ fashioned Satanic New Age.

Baader Meinhof's "Meet Me at the Airport"

Something resembling “Space Blues” only arrived in 1995, after Luke Haines took a break from The Auteurs and released “Baader Meinhof / Meet Me At the Airport.” Driven by tablas, handclaps, and lyrics aboutBaader Meinhoff b/w Meet Me at the Airportterrorism, it had a hallucinatory atmosphere quite out of step with British Top 40 then populated by the not-so-easy-listening likes of Céline Dion,East 17Oasis, and Take That and instead sounding rather like Felt's penultimate single.

A self-titled Baader Meinhof concept album followed in 1996. In its 31 minute running time it managed to be more thought provoking than any traditional concept album of the sort packaged in a gatefold sleeve, decorated with Roger Deanart, and concerned with extraterrestrials or dragons (even though I often like those too). Befitting the subject matter the album is simultaneously mesmerizing, intoxicating, and disorienting. Although Haines has released a trove of great music, Baader Meinhof is probably my favorite (a statement easier to make when not listening to any Auteurs albums).

After the US invaded Iraq in 2003, I played a song off of the album in an anti-war DJ set. Favoring simplistic, didactic, shouty political punk and earnest, acoustic protest folk, my partner turned to me quizically and asked, "Are you sure this is political?" It's not exactly The Clash orThe Pop Group but grab a copy and decide for yourself. 
*****
Eric Brightwell is an adventurer, writer, rambler, explorer, cartographer, and guerrilla gardener who is always seeking writing, speaking, traveling, and art opportunities. He is not interested in writing advertorials, clickbait, listicles, or other 21st century variations of spam. Brightwell’s written work has appeared in AmoeblogdiaCRITICS, and KCET Departures. His work has been featured by the American Institute of Architects, the Architecture & Design Museum, the Craft & Folk Art MuseumForm Follows FunctionLos Angeles County StoreSkid Row Housing Trust, and 1650 Gallery. Brightwell has been featured in the Los Angeles TimesHuffington PostLos Angeles MagazineLAistEastsider LABoing BoingLos Angeles, I’m Yours, and on Notebook on Cities and Culture. He has been a guest speaker on KCRW‘s Which Way, LA? and at Emerson College. Art prints of his maps are available from 1650 Gallery and on other products from Cal31. He is currently writing a book about Los Angeles and you can follow him on FacebookInstagram, and Twitter.

Sunday, May 10, 2015

Movies for Mother's Day

Mary Cassatt After the Bath (circa 1901)
Mary Cassatt's After the Bath (circa 1901)

The American Mother's Day was invented by Anna Jarvis in 1905, when her own mother, Ann Reeves Jarvis, died. Her mother's death proved the inspiration for a holiday and by 1908 others joined her in this macabre celebration.

After five years of dedication to her obsession, Mother's Day was first observed in West Virginia in 1910. Although writing "I love you" on a post-it note would be more meaningful, by the 1920s consumers dutifully purchased pre-made Mother's Day cards from the Hallmark corporation. Disgusted by this perversion of her crazy vision, Jarvis unsuccessfully tried to kill Mother's Day.

Whatever you do this Mother's Day, please don't spend $17.95 on a Spring Multicolor Floral Infinity Scarf, $24.95 on a Bronze Metal Birdcage Lantern Wall Decoration, or $29.95 on a Coral-inspired Jewelry Tree. Instead, take her on a hike, go for a swim, eat a type of cuisine neither of you've ever had before, go to the ballet... or watch one of these films.

*****




Mother (마더, Bong Joon-ho, 2010)


Grey Gardens (Albert Maysles, David Maysles, Ellen Hovde, Muffie Meyer, 1975)




Treeless Mountain (So Yong Kim, 2008)



Be With You (いま、会いにゆきますNobuhiro Doi, 2004)






Strait-Jacket
(William Castle, 2004)

*****

Friday, May 8, 2015

No Enclave — Exploring Burmese Los Angeles

Diversity has long been part of the fabric of Los Angeles and Southern California. Humans first arrived here at least 13,000 years ago and more than twenty Native American nations made their home here before the Spanish Conquest. The Spanish pueblo of Los Angeles was itself founded by people of NativeAfricanEuropean, and mixed ancestries and in its early years as an American city it attracted substantial numbers of ArmeniansBasquesCanadiansChineseDutchFrenchGermansIrishItalians, Japanese, JewsMexicansRussians, SerbiansSicilians, and others. For some, ethnic enclaves came into existence (and often vanished). Other people have tended to spread out across the region rather than cluster together — which makes exploring their presence in Southern California more difficult but no less rewarding.
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In 2010, 100,200 Burmese were counted by the US census and 15% of them lived in California. What "Burmese" means is slightly more complicated than it seems. Although “Burmese” refers to any citizen of Burma/Myanmar, regardless of ethnicity, the concept is closed entwined with that country's dominant Bamar ethnic group (from whom both “Burma” and “Myanmar” are both derived). In the US, too, many Burmese are Bamar but a large percentage are ethnic Chinese. As of the 2010, there were 6,109 Burmese of any ethnicity living in the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana metro area.
p013_political_map
BURMESE HISTORY
Although the oldest known human settlements were established in Burma 13,000 years ago, the historic record begins in the 2nd Century BCE, when the Pyu entered the Irrawaddy Valley. By the 4th Century CE, the Pyu had adopted Buddhism and established several city-states. In the south, the Mon established their own city-states along the coast in the 9th Century, having arrived from the east. It was also in the 9th Century that the Bamar entered the upper Irrawaddy Valley, whose Pagan Empire (1044–1287) was the first to unify the region. After the empire’s collapse, stability returned with the Toungoo Dynasty (1510–1752). The Konbaung Dynasty (1752–1885) ended with after First Anglo-Burmese War (1824 to 1826), followed by the Second Anglo-Burmese War (1852 to 1853), followed by the Third Anglo-Burmese War (1885 to 1886), after which Burma remained under British occupation, who made it a province of British India.
In 1942, a Japanese occupation replaced the British one but their colonial relationship only lasted until 1945, when they were routed by the Burma National Army. Independence was restored to Burma in 1948, although the US-backed Kuomintang of China controlled areas in the north. The political situation in Burma was never stable and since 1962 Burma has been misruled by various military leaders whose dictatorships have left it one of them most underdeveloped nations in the world.
Aung San Suu Kyi
Aung San Suu Kyi
Thankfully, since 2010 there have been some reforms in the country, including the release of pro-democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi, amnesty of 200 other political prisoners, general elections, relaxation of press censorship, and establishment of the National Human Rights Commission. However, Human Rights Watch and the National League for Democracy have remained critical of continued abuses of the Burmese people and borth the UNPO member nation Chinland and non-member Kayin State continue to struggle for peace and independence.
IMMIGRATION TO THE US
maung-shaw-loo
Maung Shaw Loo
The first Burmese to come to the US did so as students. The first was Maung Shaw Loo, who in 1858 enrolled at Pennsylvania’s University at Lewisburg (now Bucknell University). In 1867, armed with a degree in medicine, he returned to Burma. The first major wave of Burmese immigrants came in the 1960s. Most were ethnic Chinese who fled as refugees after Burmese military leader Ne Win established martial law in 1962 and even more so after anti-Chinese riots erupted in 1967. In 1988, BamarsKayins, and other Burmese people began fleeing Myanmar in large numbers following a national uprising and increased fighting in the Karen Hills.
As of 2010, there were 100,200 persons of Burmese origin living in the US and the largest concentration was in the San Gabriel Valley, especially in the cities of Monterey ParkRosemead, and San Gabriel. The local population is still rather diffuse, however, and aside from a small cluster of Burmese businesses along Garvey Avenue, most are spread out around the San Gabriel Valley although there are a couple of Burmese businesses on the Westside.  Click here to see a map.
Louisa Benson Craig
Louisa Benson Craig
Outside of Southern California, Burmese populations can be found in the San Francisco Bay Area; New York state; Clarkston, Georgia; the Washington, DC area; Fort Wayne, IndianaChicago, IllinoisCleveland, OhioDubuque, IowaIndianapolis, IndianaTulsa, OklahomaDallas, TexasHouston, Texas; Raleigh, North Carolina; and Bowling Green, Kentucky.
Prominent Burmese-Angelenos include the late mixed-Sephardic-and-Karen beauty pageant winner and rebel leader Louisa Benson Craig, the late Jewish-Burmese actor Abraham Sofaer, the late poet Tin Moe, and Burmese-born/San Gabriel Valley-raised actor, Adrian Zaw.
BURMESE CULTURE
It’s been said that cultural stereotypes can serve in the culture’s favor when its exported abroad. Although simplistic and reductive, American stereotypes about BritishChineseFrenchItalianJapanese and many other cultures have helped them cultivate a following which has in turn sustained them and allowed western appreciations of them to grow more nuanced. Cultures like Burma, on the other hand, suffer in some ways because of their obscurity.
burmese kittens (6) burmese-python Neck Rings thanaka-7
On the other hand, the average American may have no associations with Burma beyond Burmese cats or pythons. If they read the news (or watched Rambo), they probably know a little about the pro-democracy movement and perhaps they've heard of Aung San Suu Kyi. If they read National Geographic, they might have seen pictures of Kayin women in brass neck rings although at the same time they might have no awareness of in what country they live. Speed-tourists who "do" countries, rather than immerse themselves in them, might remember Burma as the place where many of the the locals wore thanaka face paste. Sadly, since food is the greatest ambassador of just about any culture, most Americans have no associations with Burmese cuisine.
BURMESE CUISINE
Big Meal including a Pot of Vegetable Soup in Shwebo (Image source: See The World in My Eyes -- Travel Blog)
Big Meal including a Pot of Vegetable Soup in Shwebo (Image source: See The World in My Eyes -- Travel Blog)
Around Los Angeles there are several Burmese restaurants to satisfy ones tastebuds and curiosity. About one third of Burmese are of the ShanKayinRakhineChineseMonKachinIndiansKayah or other another minority and these people all have their own culinary traditions, but with relatively few in the Southland, our options are more probably more mainstream Burmese -- and likely Americanized to varying degrees.
Family Cooking in Kitchen at Home, Village of Pattap Poap Near Inle Lake, Shan (Image source: Eitan Simanor)
Family Cooking in Kitchen at Home, Village of Pattap Poap Near Inle Lake, Shan (Image source: Eitan Simanor)
That being said, most types of Burmese cuisines have certain commonalities. Burma is situated between several culinary titans — ChinaIndia (specifically, the Seven Sister States), Thailand, and Vietnam — and not surprisingly Burmese dishes bear the influence of all. Burmese food is generally mildly spiced and a typical meal consists of curry, soup, rice, tea leaf salads, and balachaung — a side dish usually made with friend vegetables and shrimp powder. The “national dish” is mohinga, a rice noodle catfish soup typically eaten, like ph, at breakfast.
Golden Triangle, formerly in Whittier
Golden Triangle, formerly in Whittier
In all likelihood, the now-closed Golden Triangle was the first Burmese restaurant in Los Angeles County. It opened in Whittier in 1991 and remained in operation until around around 2013, when it was replaced by a Thai restaurant.
Yoma Myanmar Restaurant
Yoma Myanmar Restaurant
Since the closure of Golden Triangle, Yoma Myanmar Restaurant is the oldest local Burmese restaurant, established by Kachin State-native Z Gyung (Joan) Lam in 2001. It has a fairly large menu which includes a breakfast section and a large selection of salads (including lemon, pennyworth, green bean, pon-ye-gyi, tomato, potato, ginger, tea leaf, preserved egg, samusa, pork ear, bean vermicelli, shrimp, and more), curries (street pork, shan hkat, chicken ton yam, chicken gizzard, steam hilsa, goat, as well as a separate section for spicy curries).
Inside Yoma Myanmar Restaurant
Inside Yoma Myanmar Restaurant
Praise has come from food writers James Gordon (The LA Weekly) and Tony Chen (Eater LA). It's served by Metro's 70 and Rapid 770 lines.
Daw Yee Myanmar Café
Daw Yee Myanmar Café
Daw Yee Myanmar Café has a young vibe (there was R & B playing when I visited) and does delivery. The restaurant is run by Delyn Chow and named after his mother. Although only the samosas and fried tofu are listed on the menu as vegan, there are many dishes which appear to be vegetarian including the deserts, several of which are made from coconut milk, pandan, and tapioca. Their specialties include curries (egg curry (hard boiled and deep fried), fishcake, vegetable (okra, eggplants, potatoes, lentils, and daikon), chicken, beef, mutton, pork, and prawn. Daw Yee has found favor with Anne Fishbein and Besha Rodell (both of the LA Weekly), and Tony Chen (Eater LA). It's served by Metro's 70 and Rapid 770 lines.
Fuji West opened in San Gabriel in 2013 and offered both Burmese and Japanese food before ditching the latter and changing its name to Rangoon Kitchen. Then, in 2014, it relocated to West Covina. They have a buffet, which is generally a good way to figure out which Burmese dish is right for you. It was praised, in it's Fuji West incarnation, by food writer Clarissa Wei in a piece she wrote about several Burmese restaurants. It's severed, in its current West Covina location, by Foothill Transit's 178185272281480488, and 707 lines.
Golden Owl Restaurant
Golden Owl Restaurant
Golden Owl is small, clean and cute. It has a small menu, including several vegan and vegetarian dishes, includingg a vegan moving, a coconut tofu noodle soup, a vegan Burmese rainbow salad, and a vegetable rice bowl.
Golden Owl
The owner, Shwe Lynn Chin, is herself a vegetarian but even the meat dishes are designed to be light and healthy. Its praises have been sung by CJ Greenspan (KPCC's Off-Ramp) and Christine Chiao (LA Weekly). Golden Owl is located right next to a stop of Foothill Transit's 178 line.
Jasmine Market (Image source: Oh My Food Coma)
Jasmine Market (Image source: Oh My Food Coma)
Outside of the San Gabriel Valley there are only a couple of Burmese places — both of which have roots with Myo Aung. First the chef established Jasmine Market, located in Culver City, which has kabobs, tandoori, chicken biryani, kauswe, and more. It was sold around 2007 and subsequently positively reviewed by Jonathan Gold. Jasmine is served by Culver CityBus's 166R, and lines as well as LADOT's Commuter Express 437 line.
Muritiara (Image source: Emily
Murtiara (Image source: Emily "The Smack Talker" S.)
After selling Jasmine, Myo Aung opened Mutiara Food & Market in Inglewood. Yelp reviews of it mention BangladeshChinaIndiaMalaysiaSingaporeThailand and usually, halal meats. One review, which Yelp chose to hide for whatever reason, simply stated “Pan-ASEAN” which seems a fairly accurate and helpful way of describing the restaurant and market. It was postively reviewed by food writer Miles Clements (LA Times) both it and Jasmine stock a few South and Southeast groceries. Mutiara Food & Market is served by Metro's 40111/311115211/215212/312442607, and Rapid 740 lines.
Good reviews and glamorized spectacular visual presentations of food are all well and good but they don't keep restaurants in business so I heartily encourage you to regularly patronize as all of the Burmese restaurants and help sustain Los Angeles's increasingly unparalleled culinary diversity.
BURMESE MUSIC
Image source: Southeast Asia Library Group (SEALG)
Image source: Southeast Asia Library Group (SEALG)
Burmese music can be divided into folkclassical, and pop. The folk music of Burma is played by ensembles known as hsaing waing.
[youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I4cVua1DqgE]
It is characterized by sudden shifts in song structure and of the array of local instruments, the harp-like saung-gauk is probably most celebrated.
[youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gT3kX-hSto0]
Classical Burmese music compositions are compiled in the extensive canonical work, the Mahagita.
[youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TAeAy9Me5MI]
Pop (especially K-Pop) and hip-hip dominate popular Burmese music today, and Seattle-based Sublime Frequencies’ two volume Guitars of the Golden Triangle: Folk and Pop Music of Myanmar are popular with enthusiasts of ‘60s and ‘70s westernized-Southeast Asian rock.
BURMESE DANCE
[youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a-x2wulxMEM]
Burmese dance can be divided into folk and village, dramatic, and nat. Although all are particularly influenced by Thai dance, Burmese dances retain a distinctly Burmese style characterized, like the music, by dramatic shifts in music and an emphasis on poses. Unfortunately I know of no Burmese dance companies and even traveling ones have rarely, if ever, graced the stages of the Southland, although there are dances at local Thingyan observances.
BURMESE FESTIVALS IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
[youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fQOUdEBnSlo]
The most important Burmese festival is Thingyan, a four-or-five-day celebration tied which precedes the lunar new year also observed in CambodiaIndiaLaosSri Lanka, and Thailand. It begins in the month of Tagu, and usually takes place in mid-April. Observance of the holiday involves water throwing, and locally observances take place annually in Rosemead and at least sometimes in South El Monte’s Whittier Narrows.
[youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e0qUlbW7xuc]
There’s also an annual Myanmar Film Festival Los Angeles, held every year since 2007 in at the Downtown Independent theater (previously the Imaginasian) and which seeks not just to serve the Burmese community but to promote Burmese culture in Los Angeles. It’s organized by Network of Myanmar American Association (NetMAA).
BURMESE TEMPLES & ORGANIZATIONS
There are only two or three Burmese temples in Los Angeles that I know of. Several Burmese Buddhist registries list Bodhi Vepullakari Monastery in Pomona, but I’m not entirely sure whether or not it’s still there. The not-always-accurate Google street view seems to suggest that it's not. 
Burma Buddhist Temple
Burma Buddhist Temple
The oldest such temple that I do know of is the Burma Buddhist Temple in La Puente. It was founded in 1980, making it the oldest Burmese monastery in the US.  It is served by Foothill Transit’s 178280, and 486 lines.
Azusa Myanmar Buddhist Temple
Azusa Myanmar Buddhist Temple
The Myanmar Progressive Buddhist Association was founded not far away, in Monterey Park, in 1986. Later that year they purchased a house in the foothills of Azusa which became the, the grounds of which also host a modest sculpture garden. It’s not especially well-served by public transit; the nearest stop of Foothill Transit’s 187 line is located 2.4 kilometers to the south and the Metro Gold Line's Azusa Downtown Station (scheduled to open quite soon) is located 2.25 kilometers south.
*****
Eric Brightwell is an adventurer, writer, rambler, explorer, cartographer, and guerrilla gardener who is always seeking writing, speaking, traveling, and art opportunities. He is not interested in writing advertorials, clickbait, listicles, or other 21st century variations of spam. Brightwell’s written work has appeared in AmoeblogdiaCRITICS, and KCET Departures. His work has been featured by the American Institute of Architects, the Architecture & Design Museum, the Craft & Folk Art MuseumForm Follows FunctionLos Angeles County StoreSkid Row Housing Trust, and 1650 Gallery. Brightwell has been featured in the Los Angeles TimesHuffington PostLos Angeles MagazineLAistEastsider LABoing BoingLos Angeles, I’m Yours, and on Notebook on Cities and Culture. He has been a guest speaker on KCRW‘s Which Way, LA? and at Emerson College. Art prints of his maps are available from 1650 Gallery and on other products from Cal31. He is currently writing a book about Los Angeles and you can follow him on FacebookInstagram, and Twitter.